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For example, in Malaysia the major phase of deforestation occurred for the development of rubber estates, before the 1980s. "We're working with those that are committed to that journey. Banks have also come under fire as they continue dishing out loans to forest destroyers. The two converged between 1980 and 2000. In 2003, France and Germany established fiscal policies promoting biodiesel. Among big producers of biodiesel, France and Germany are the only countries to use rapeseed as main feedstocks. The company now wants to move beyond making its own supply chain "clean" to challenging Mars suppliers to ensure their whole supply chains follow the same model, Parkin said. Palm oil—an ingredient found in about half of supermarket products globally—has become one of the world’s most controversial commodities due to the myriad social and environmental ills it brings, with campaigns to boycott it often raising significant consumer awareness. In addition to their exceptional productivity, oil palm trees also demand much less work and production inputs per unit than other oil crops. Green groups broadly welcomed the move but raised concerns smaller farmers and suppliers that do not make the grade could be left behind, continuing with bad practices and selling to global buyers that do not have safeguards on forest protection. The environmental impact of palm oil. In Indonesia, the peak was between 2000 and 2008, and has now decreased to 5% (figure 11). Even then, the implementation of these policies has been patchy and slow. The real challenge is to create enough value from both agricultural and forest landscapes, to encourage local societies to keep their forests rather than to convert them into agriculture. EB Impact is a non-profit organisation focused on delivering training and programmes in Asia Pacific. The smaller Southeast Asia multinationals such as Wilmar, Olam, Sinar Mas and Sime Darby and others control the production of palm oil. Figure 4: Vegetable oils consumed worldwide. Figure 1: Total food supply (Kcal per capita per year). In early 2019 the EU submitted an act targeting vegetable oils that cause ILUC risks and deforestation. As a result, there is a global competition in the vegetable oil market, with, on one side, the dominating western agribusinesses, and on the other side, the smaller agribusinesses from Southeast Asia who are progressively taking a bigger share of the global pie. In 2019, tropical rainforests - whose preservation is considered crucial to limiting planetary heating - disappeared at a rate of one football pitch every six seconds, according to data from online monitoring service Global Forest Watch. "It's a good outcome for both Mars and its handful of suppliers," said Andika Putraditama, sustainable commodities and business manager at the World Resources Institute Indonesia. While North American and European vegetable-oil consumption is now stable, all the other regions of the world are still far from European levels. The main oil crops of the European Union are rapeseed and sunflower. These major oils also have different characteristics for industrial uses. According to a 2019 report by the World Wide Fund for Nature, only 9 per cent of Southeast Asian financial institutions have adopted NDPE policies. For the developed countries, the consumption of animal fats per capita reached its peak in the 1980s and started to decline. Coming a year after Indonesia saw its worst forest fires since the catastrophic blazes in 2015, the report also reveals that among corporates committed to zero burning, only about two in three firms disclose adequate information of fire management and monitoring practices. Three of the ABCDs have their headquarters in the United States, which not coincidentally has the largest land bank outside its borders – more than 7 million hectares. Like other vegetable and animal fats, palm oil follows food-supply trends that have been well documented since the 18th century. Because of the productive advantages of palm oil, its market share has grown steadily over the last decades, and surpassed other vegetable oils (figure 8). The ABCDs directly or indirectly control the production of soybean, rapeseed, and sunflower oil. Visit http://news.trust.org). For example, they allegedly control 75% to 90% of the world grain market. Now, huge swathes of oil palm trees dominate the tropical landscape of South-East Asia, especially Indonesia and Malaysia, which make up over 85% of the global supply of palm oil. They bet on growing markets, with the rise of the middle class in developing and emerging regions. At the same time, the US trade diplomacy managed to convince Europe to increase its imports of soybean by nearly 250%. While the total caloric intake in France has levelled off, the proportion of carbohydrates has constantly decreased while that of fats has risen. Indigenous leaders count on Biden to help save Amazon forest from 'brink of collapse', Coronavirus pandemic sparks surge in firewood use in rural Kenya, As Amazon blazes surge, firefighting proves a challenge, Medicine not chainsaws: Indonesian clinic keeps villagers and forests healthy. Figure 7: The price in US dollars per ton for the major oils. It argued that firms “have done little to leverage their market and supply chain influence for tangible change” and have continued sourcing from the same suppliers responsible for forest clearing and exploitation “without repercussion or accountability”.

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