English Standard Version The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately sick; who can understand it? The ventricles start to relax, the mitral and tricuspid valves open, and the cycle begins again.. The second heart sound, S2, is the sound of the semilunar valves closing during ventricular diastole and is described as "dub". , Other blood tests are often taken to help understand a person's general health and risk factors that may contribute to heart disease.  After 9 weeks (start of the fetal stage) it starts to decelerate, slowing to around 145 (±25) bpm at birth. Fruits 7 14. By the end of the fifth week the septa are complete and the heart valves are completed by the ninth week. Reference: Anonymous, Last Update: 2015-12-22 , The Chinese character for "heart", 心, derives from a comparatively realistic depiction of a heart (indicating the heart chambers) in seal script. Testing when exercising can be used to provoke an abnormality, or an ECG can be worn for a longer period such as a 24-hour Holter monitor if a suspected rhythm abnormality is not present at the time of assessment. Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon, electrical conduction system of the heart, Das Reizleitungssystem des Säugetierherzens. Baroreceptors fire at a rate determined by how much they are stretched, which is influenced by blood pressure, level of physical activity, and the relative distribution of blood. Usage Frequency: 1 These conditions are often genetic and can be inherited, but some such as dilated cardiomyopathy may be caused by damage from toxins such as alcohol. As heart is a hard-working muscle, it makes for "firm and rather dry" meat, so is generally slow-cooked. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide.  The part of the serous membrane attached to the fibrous membrane is called the parietal pericardium, while the part of the serous membrane attached to the heart is known as the visceral pericardium. Some people are born with hearts that are abnormal and these abnormalities are known as congenital heart defects. Echocardiography can be conducted by a probe on the chest ("transthoracic") or by a probe in the esophagus ("transoesophageal"). It receives blood from the great cardiac vein (receiving the left atrium and both ventricles), the posterior cardiac vein (draining the back of the left ventricle), the middle cardiac vein (draining the bottom of the left and right ventricles), and small cardiac veins. Through a series of reflexes these help regulate and sustain blood flow. The ECG is a useful tool in detecting rhythm disturbances and in detecting insufficient blood supply to the heart. (In tetrapods, the ventral aorta has divided in two; one half forms the ascending aorta, while the other forms the pulmonary artery). It opens chemical or ligand-gated sodium and calcium ion channels, allowing an influx of positively charged ions. This circulation consists of the systemic circulation to and from the body and the pulmonary circulation to and from the lungs. , Healthy heart valves allow blood to flow easily in one direction, but prevent it from flowing in the other direction. The cardiac muscle pattern is elegant and complex, as the muscle cells swirl and spiral around the chambers of the heart, with the outer muscles forming a figure 8 pattern around the atria and around the bases of the great vessels and the inner muscles, forming a figure 8 around the two ventricles and proceeding toward the apex.
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